Noskov, A.; Achilles, S. & Bendix, J. (2021): <b>Presence and Biomass Information Extraction from Highly Uncertain Data of an Experimental Low-Range Insect Radar Setup</b>. <i>Diversity</i> <b>13</b>(9), 452.
Presence and Biomass Information Extraction from Highly Uncertain Data of an Experimental Low-Range Insect Radar Setup
Systematic, practicable, and global solutions are required for insect monitoring to address species decline and pest management concerns. Compact frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar can facilitate these processes. In this work, we evaluate a 60 GHz low-range FMCW radar device for its applicability to insect monitoring. Initial tests showed that radar parameters should be carefully selected. We defined optimal radar configuration during the first experiment and developed a methodology for individual target observation. In the second experiment, we tried various individual-insect targets, including small ones. The third experiment was devoted to mass-insect-target detection. All experiments were intentionally conducted in very uncertain conditions to make them closer to a real field situation. A novel parameter, the Sum of Sequential Absolute Magnitude Differences (SSAMD), has been proposed for uncertainty reduction and noisy data processing. SSAMD enables insect target presence detection and biomass estimation. We have defined ranges of SSAMD for distinguishing noise, insects, and other larger targets (e.g., bats, birds, or other larger objects). We have provided evidence of the high correlation between insect numbers and the average of SSAMD values proving the biomass estimation possibility. This work confirms that such radar devices can be used for insect monitoring. We plan to use the evaluated system assembled with a light trap for real fieldwork in the future.