The aim of this study was to proof applicability of hyperspectral imaging for the analysis and classification of human mucosal surfaces in vivo. The larynx as a prototypical anatomically well-defined surgical test area was analyzed by microlaryngoscopy with a polychromatic lightsource and a synchronous triggered monochromatic CCD-camera. Image stacks (5 benign, 7 malignant tumors) were analyzed by established software (principal component analysis PCA, hyperspectral classification, spectral profiles). Hyperspectral image datacubes were analyzed and classified by conventional software. In PCA, images at 590–680 nm loaded most onto the first PC which typically contained 95% of the total information. Hyperspectral classification clustered the data highlighting altered mucosa. The spectral profiles clearly differed between the different groups. Hyperspectral imaging can be applied to mucosal surfaces. This approach opens the way to analyze spectral characteristics of histologically different lesions in order to build up a spectral library and to allow non-touch optical biopsy.