Cite as:
Bendix, J.; Homeier, J.; Cueva Ortiz, E.; Emck, P.; Breckle, S.; Richter, M. &amp; Beck, E. (2006): <b>Seasonality of weather and tree phenology in tropical evergreen mountain rain forest</b>. <i>International Journal of Biometeorology</i> <b>50</b>, 370-384.

Resource Description

Title: Seasonality of weather and tree phenology in tropical evergreen mountain rain forest
FOR816dw ID: 114
Publication Date: 2006-04-06
License and Usage Rights: PAK 823-825 data user agreement. (
Resource Owner(s):
Individual: Jörg Bendix
Individual: Jürgen Homeier
Individual: E. Cueva Ortiz
Individual: Paul Emck
Individual: S.-W. Breckle
Individual: M. Richter
Individual: Erwin Beck
Abstract Flowering and fruiting as phenological events of<br/> 12 tree species in an evergreen tropical mountain rain forest<br/> in southern Ecuador were examined over a period of 3–<br/> 4 years. Leaf shedding of two species was observed for<br/> 12 months. Parallel to the phenological recordings,<br/> meteorological parameters were monitored in detail and<br/> related to the flowering and fruiting activity of the trees. In<br/> spite of the perhumid climate of that area, a high degree of<br/> intra- and inter-specific synchronisation of phenological<br/> traits was apparent. With the exception of one species that<br/> flowered more or less continuously, two groups of trees<br/> could be observed, one of which flowered during the less<br/> humid months (September to October) while the second<br/> group started to initiate flowers towards the end of that<br/> phase and flowered during the heavy rains (April to July).<br/> As reflected by correlation coefficients, the all-time series<br/> of meteorological parameters showed a distinct seasonality<br/> of 8–12 months, apparently following the quasi-periodic<br/> oscillation of precipitation and related cloudiness. As<br/> revealed by power spectrum analysis and Markov<br/> persistence, rainfall and minimum temperature appear to<br/> be the only parameters with a periodicity free of long-term<br/> variations. The phenological events of most of the plant<br/> species showed a similar periodicity of 8–12 months,<br/> which followed the annual oscillation of relatively less and<br/> more humid periods and thus was in phase or in counterphase<br/> with the oscillations of the meteorological parameters.<br/> Periods of unusual cold or dryness, presumably<br/> resulting from underlying longer-term trends or oscillations<br/> (such as ENSO), affected the homogeneity of quasi-12-<br/> month flowering events, fruit maturation and also the<br/> production of germinable seeds. Some species show<br/> underlying quasi-2-year-oscillations, for example that<br/> synchronise with the development of air temperature;<br/> others reveal an underlying decrease or increase in<br/> flowering activity over the observation period, influenced<br/> for instance by solar irradiance. As Ecuador suffers the<br/> highest rate of deforestation in South America, there is an<br/> urgent need for indigenous plant material for reforestation.<br/> A detailed knowledge of the biology of reproduction in<br/> relation to governing external factors (mainly climate) is<br/> thus required.
| Ecuador | Tropical | Mountain forest | Phenology | Weather cycles |
Literature type specific fields:
Journal: International Journal of Biometeorology
Volume: 50
Page Range: 370-384
Metadata Provider:
Individual: Tiziana Li Koch
Online Distribution:
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