Cite as:
Bendix, J. (2000): <b>Precipitation dynamics in Ecuador and Northern Peru during the 1991/92 El Ni&ntilde;o - A Remote Sensing perspective</b>. <i>International Journal of Remote Sensing</i> <b>21</b>(3), 533-548.

Resource Description

Title: Precipitation dynamics in Ecuador and Northern Peru during the 1991/92 El Niño - A Remote Sensing perspective
FOR816dw ID: 186
Publication Date: 2000-01-01
License and Usage Rights: PAK 823-825 data user agreement. (
Resource Owner(s):
Individual: Jörg Bendix
The formation, dynamics and spatial distribution of heavy precipitation<br/> during the 1991/92 El Nin˜o in Ecuador and northern Peru were examined<br/> by means of Meteosat-3 imagery, NOAA-AVHRR-based multichannel sea<br/> surface temperatures (MCSST) and additional meteorological observations. The<br/> Convective and Stratiform Technique (CST) was used for rain retrieval by means<br/> of Meteosat IR data and a cross-correlation approach was applied to Meteosat<br/> image sequences to derive cloud motion winds (CMW) which are essential for<br/> the analysis of circulation patterns leading to severe precipitation. From an<br/> analysis of 45 days with severe precipitation it is proven that three mechanisms<br/> were responsible for the formation of heavy rains. Each mechanism reveals a<br/> speci? c localized impact. (1) The most frequent mechanism (frequency of ~61%)<br/> represents an extended land–sea breeze system. During such weather conditions,<br/> predominantly locally con? ned precipitation patterns occured. Areas a? ected by<br/> the sea wind front during the day were the coastal plains up to the 1000m contour<br/> line on the western Andean slope. Local maxima in the frequency of cloudiness<br/> leading to precipitation could be found at isolated peaks of a lower coastal<br/> cordillera. At night the highest frequency of precipitation was found over the<br/> warm water surface of the Gulf of Guayaquil, mainly due to its coastal shape<br/> which signi? cantly favours convergence of the nocturnal land breeze. (2)<br/> Convection, initiated in the coastal plain and on the western Andean slopes<br/> during the afternoon, was signi? cantly intensi? ed by an entrainment of remainders<br/> of cirrus shields from the Amazon basin. These cloud fragments spilled over the<br/> Andes with well-developed trades in the mid/upper troposphere which blew in<br/> the opposite direction to the daily sea/up-slope breeze. The spill over points were<br/> characterized by areas of deep convection on the western Andean slopes and were<br/> frequently valley axes perpendicular to the mountain chain as well as the Andean<br/> depression in southern Ecuador. (3) During the main El Nin˜o phase (March–<br/> April ), heavy and persistent precipitation was extended over wide areas of the<br/> coastal plain showing neither a distinct diurnal cycle nor preferential areas. Deep<br/> convection was frequently organized in mesoscale convective complexes (MCC)<br/> and was spatially correlated with MCSST > 27ß . The extensive instability of the<br/> troposphere during these weather conditions was marked by convective cloud<br/> streets and an intensi? cation of the meridional Hadley circulation o? the coast<br/> of southern Ecuador and Peru.
| Ecuador | El Nino | precipitation dynamics | Nothern Peru |
Literature type specific fields:
Journal: International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume: 21
Issue: 3
Page Range: 533-548
Metadata Provider:
Individual: Tiziana Li Koch
Online Distribution:
Download File:

Quick search

  • Publications:
  • Datasets: